The winner of the 2001 Nobel Prize in Medicine, Sir Paul Nurse offered alecture at DMU, within the framework of the Distinguished Seminars cycle of the CNIO. The distinguished Essay helpargues that cell division and cycle – of great importance to understand cancer. Nurse explained the role of science innovation in the growth and momentum of the economy. Decisions about how science should be supported are of special relevance, and have a direct impact on its operation.
The interpretation of logical disclosures into functional applications is conceivable just if the exploration is financed in a supported and managed way after some time, from the obtaining of new learning to the advancement that prompts the improvement of new advances. The gathering at the CNIO is encircled in the lecture, which incorporates addresses given by world specialists in biomedicine.
Despite the fact that the phone hypothesis – every single living life form are made out of at least one cells that originate from the division of existing cells was proposed amid the main portion of the nineteenth century, it was not until the 1990s, and thanks in huge part to crafted by nurse, when they started to disentangle the systems that guarantee the spread of cells, and therefore, the progression of the species.
Attendant has influenced critical commitments in the field of the cell to cycle – systems that control cell division-, in which he has recognized the essential sub-atomic controllers that control when cells choose to partition and the speed at which they do it.Following 30 years, we are as yet distinguishing key proteins in these phone control forms,” Nurse said amid the address.
Mitosis, which creates hereditarily indistinguishable cells, is the establishment of development, tissue repair and a biogenetic proliferation. The other type of division of the hereditary material of a core is called meiosis and is a procedure that, despite the fact that it imparts components to mitosis, ought not to be mistaken for it, since it is normal for the phone division of gametes. It delivers hereditarily unmistakable cells and, joined with treatment, is the establishment of sexual generation and hereditary fluctuation.
Through the mitotic process, the genetic material is divided into two identical nuclei, so that the two daughter cells that result if the division of the cytoplasm occurs will be genetically identical. Therefore, mitosis is a process of conservative division, since the genetic material is maintained from one cell generation to the next. Most of the gene expression stops during mitosis, but epigenetic mechanisms work during this phase, to “remember” the genes that were active in mitosis and transmit them to the daughter cells.
Any control instruments adjustment in these can yield cells with sporadic measure of chromosomes, with the subsequent pick up or loss of qualities. One of the highlights that exactly characterizes growth cells are adjustments in these procedures, which features the significance of concentrate the cell cycle to comprehend the cause of this sickness. Medical attendant has not just made vital commitments to the yeast Saccharomyces pombe, the unicellular living being with which he has worked for over 30 years, yet he has likewise demonstrated that these sub-atomic instruments are all inclusive in every single eukaryotic living being, from yeast to people.
After more than 150 years of the formulation of the cellular theory, Nurse pointed out in his lecture at DMU, on the occasion of the 2001 Nobel Prize, what the scientists of the time had already advanced: “the basic unit of life is governed by the same forces.
From all this and his subsequent research it was deduced that the same gene controls cell division in all organisms. In addition, several proteins synthesized by the CDC genes have been identified with very important regulatory functions, the so-called CDK proteins. Paul Nurse has contributed energetically to the identification, cloning and characterization of CDKs, and demonstrated that the function of these is responsible for transforming the cell during its cycle, through the chemical modification of other proteins, a process known as protein phosphorylation. The implications of these discoveries are crucial to understand how cancer spreads, since this disease consists of an uncontrolled proliferation of cells by altering their cell cycle,
These investigations can be applied to the diagnosis of tumors and may lead to new therapies, because all cancer cells have some defect in their cycles that affect the development of the disease. In this sense, nurse has shown that the introduction of human genes in mutant yeast can save them from their defect.